” The Rotterdam criteria are commonly used to diagnose PCOS. According to the criteria, you need to have at least 2 of the 3 following symptoms:

  • Irregular menstrual cycle
  • Signs of hyperandrogenism (high testosterone) like acne, hair growth or hair loss
  • Multiple follicles on your ovaries (seen on ultrasound)

Many doctors will do an ultrasound to check for multiple ovarian follicles as well as blood tests to check for high testosterone levels (amongst other hormone profiles).
Okay, so now that we know how PCOS is diagnosed, here are 8 reasons your PCOS diagnosis might be missed.

1. You are not overweight
There are many women who have lean PCOS. Their weight is normal (they may even be under weight). But, remember that although weight issues are often seen in women with PCOS, it’s not always the case and is not a diagnostic criteria for PCOS. Now, I have heard from women whose doctors did not pursue PCOS because they were not overweight.

2. You have a regular cycle
I have not always had a regular menstrual cycle. I’m very pleased to say that I do now. Does that mean that I don’t have PCOS anymore? Of course not. You only need 2 of the 3 criteria. So, you may well have a period regularly but struggle with high testosterone levels and ovarian follicles.

3. You did not have trouble getting pregnant
This is one that I have also come across frequently. A lot of women have gotten pregnant in spite of PCOS. Especially if you have a regular cycle.
A diagnosis of PCOS doesn’t always mean fertility difficulties, even though this is very common.

4. You don’t have a string of pearls.
I’m not talking about the pearls that you’d pay a small fortune to have. I’m talking about the string of pearls on your ovaries. You don’t need to have those ovarian follicles to have PCOS. 2 out of 3, remember?

5. Nobody else in your family has it
Although there is thought to be a strong genetic component to PCOS, it is not always seen in other female members of the family. For example, no other women in my family have PCOS, as far as I know.

6. You don’t have unwanted hair or acne
I know you’re starting to see a pattern here. Even if you don’t have hirsutism or acne, you could still have PCOS. If your cycle is irregular and you have the string of pearls, you could have PCOS.

7. You’ve been on birth control for years
A lot of us have been on the birth control pill for many many years. I was on it for at least 10 years before I was diagnosed with PCOS. The hormones from the pill often mask the symptoms of PCOS. It is only when you stop the pill that your symptoms come to light and you might start investigating the cause.

8. You’ve seen loads of doctors and none of them picked it up
Unfortunately this is another very common thing. It happened to me. PCOS is becoming more widely spoken about but there is still lack of awareness about PCOS. You may well have seen a number of doctors before you were diagnosed with PCOS.
So, there you have it. Your 8 reasons that your PCOS diagnosis may have been missed.”

by pcosdietsupport.com



Polycystic ovary syndrome causes irregular menstrual cycles, excessive body or facial hair and polycystic ovaries as its main symptoms. Polycystic means “many cysts,” and PCOS often causes clusters of small, pearl-sized cysts in the ovaries. The cysts are fluid-filled and contain immature eggs. Women with PCOS produce slightly higher amounts of male hormones known as androgens, which contribute to some of the symptoms of the condition. The cause of PCOS is not known. Some women with PCOS are less sensitive to insulin than other women, a condition known as insulin resistance. Insulin resistance can causes the ovaries to produce too many male hormones. The resulting hormonal imbalance can cause the symptoms of PCOS. The condition appears to run in families, and sisters of those with it are twice as likely to have it. Currently, PCOS has no cure, but a variety of PCOS treatments can help alleviate the symptoms of this disease, including infertility.

PCOS Symptoms

PCOS is a syndrome disease defined by a collection of signs and symptoms. The symptoms of PCOS that one patient experiences can be very different from the symptoms of another patient. If you have two or more of the following symptoms, you need to have a thorough checkup to determine if you need PCOS treatment:

  • Irregular or missing menstrual periods
  • Infertility
  • Excess or unwanted body or facial hair growth
  • Thinning hair on the scalp
  • Weight problems, often including weight gain around the waist
  • Skin problems, including skin tags, darkening skin and acne
Complications of PCOS

The common PCOS symptoms are difficult enough for most women, but some will experience further complications, including:

  • Diabetes, elevated insulin levels or insulin resistance
  • Heart and blood vessel problems
  • Uterine cancer
  • Sleep apnea

Each of these problems can be life threatening, which is why treatment for PCOS is so important.

PCOS Treatments

Polycystic ovary syndrome treatment starts with a proper diagnosis. Treatments are then chosen based on a woman’s symptoms, age and future pregnancy plans. Treatment for PCOS may include:

  • Birth control pills to regulate menstruation
  • Insulin-sensitizing medications
  • Ovulation induction to treat infertility
  • Androgen-blocking medications
  • Topical anti-hair-growth medications
  • Other excess hair treatments
  • Treatments for hair loss
  • Acne treatments
  • Removal of other skin problems
Lifestyle and Prevention

One of the best treatments for PCOS is a healthy lifestyle. A healthy diet low in refined carbohydrates is important, as this can help regulate blood sugar levels. Exercise can also help the body regulate insulin and keep excess weight off. Losing weight is challenging with PCOS, but doing so can help reduce the male hormone levels in the body, and some women will begin to ovulate naturally. With a proper diagnosis, lifestyle changes and PCOS treatment, women can get relief from this condition and the overwhelming health problems it can cause. .”

By Editors: Cristina Meriggiola, MD, PhD University of Bologna Musa Zamah, MD, PhD University of California, San Francisco

Paradoxical hypertrichosis after laser epilation

“The use of lasers to remove hair has become very popular in recent years. However, there are sometimes strange phenomena that occur when lasers are used to remove unwanted hair. On rare occasions, instead of removing hair, laser treatments can actually promote hair growth. This phenomena, known as hypertrichosisis, is paradoxical effect of laser epilation. The new hair growth is actually created in part by the effect of the laser although this effect and how it occurs is not yet completely understood. Scientists are now searching for a better understanding of the mechanism behind this paradoxical effect of laser induced hypertrichosis so as to prevent it in future cases.

In order to better understand this phenomenon, scientists set up an experiment using an alexandrite laser to remove the unwanted hair of 489 patients. The patients had all been customers at a single laser hair removal clinic at the University of British Columbia Dermatology Division in Canada, and were treated by trained nurses and supervised by board certified dermatologists. Out of these 489 patients, only 3 cases of laser induced hypertrichosis were identified, but these cases were enough to offer further information on this rare phenomenon.

The three patients who had experienced an increased amount of hair growth instead of a decrease became the focus of further study. Paradoxical hypertrichosis had been seen before in other cases, but it had not been so carefully watched. Scientists first identified the hypertrichosis in each of the three patients by noting an increase in hair density, hair color or hair coarseness after laser application. Once this definition was established, they began to examine each individual case more closely.

One of the patients who experienced this increase was a 39 year old Mediterranean woman with black hair. At first, when the laser was applied to an area with unwanted hair, the hair growth decreased just as it was supposed to. However, the continued applications of the laser resulted in increasingly stubborn hair that would simply not respond to the treatment. Eventually, the woman reported a gradual increase in hair density around that area rather than a decrease.

A second patient who experienced an increased quality of hair growth was a 30 year old white man with black hair on both his arms and his back. The man had wished to have some of this hair removed from his back, but the treatment was not successful. During the first three sessions, he experienced a positive result where the unwanted hair began to slowly disappear. However, further treatments began to require higher and higher intensities of laser light in order to be successful. After six visits to the clinic, the man began to notice an increase in hair growth rather than a decrease. This was only noticed at the specific locations where he had been receiving the treatments. Even with a further increase of laser intensity, there was no success and the man abandoned the treatment entirely.

The third patient who experienced laser induced hypertrichosis was a 21 year old Chinese man with black hair. Besides the common factor of black hair, which existed in all three of these patients, there was a similar skin type amongst them known as Fitzpatrick “Skin Type IV”. Skin type IV indicates a darker level of skin that rarely burns with sunlight exposure (as opposed to skin type I, which is very white skin that easily burns when exposed to sunlight). Out of six different skin types in the Fitzpatrick skin type classification; this skin type IV was the only type of skin that was known to have been adversely affected by laser hair removal treatment in any of the 489 patients. Hair color and skin type may have obviously contributed to the hypertrichosis because, just like the other two patients, this third Chinese man began to notice an increased growth after 11 days of the laser epilation.

The results of the testing were compiled and analyzed so that the most obvious cause of the hypertrichosis was determined to be a result of the laser epilation itself. This was evident from the fact that the increased hair growth only occurred in the areas that were treated by the laser but, more specifically, scientists have determined that the problem may be a result of the wrong intensity of laser light rather than just the laser light itself. These ideas are being tested further and it is the hope of scientists that a solution to this rare adverse hair growth occurrence can be corrected in type IV patients.”

by hairgrowthews.com

Paradoxical hypertrichosis after laser epilation references

Alajlan A, Shapiro J, Rivers JK, MacDonald N, Wiggin J, Lui H. Paradoxical hypertrichosis after laser epilation. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2005 Jul;53(1):85-8. PMID: 15965427

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) and Hirsutism

“What exactly is PCOS and how does it cause hirsutism in our clients? PCOS is one of the most common endocrine disorders facing women today, affecting as many as five million

women in the U.S. It affects up to 10 percent of women of reproductive age (12 to 45 years) although it can be found in girls as young as seven or eight and women well past menopause.
This disorder is thought to be the leading cause of diminished capacity for fertility in women. Although PCOS is one of the leading causes of infertility, the reproductive aspects of the disorder are secondary as PCOS is not limited to women of reproductive age and may not improve after menopause.

PCOS is known as polycystic ovarian syndrome. Common symptoms of PCOS may include irregular or no menstrual periods for women of reproductive age; irregular ovulation with or without bleeding; severe acne including cystic acne; thinning scalp hair; excessive hair growth on face and body (hirsutism); build up of follicles on the edges of the ovaries, these are often mislabeled as “cysts” and called “polycystic ovaries.”
It is not necessary to have all of these symptoms to have PCOS and in fact, it is not necessary to have the “polycystic ovaries” to have PCOS.

Weight management issues are found in over 60 percent of those suffering from PCOS. This can lead to obesity even with normal caloric intake due to the glucose which is stored as fat instead of being used as energy, or being made available for other functions within the body. This can lead to chronic fatigue and under nourishment. It is important to note that 40 percent of women with PCOS exhibit normal weight and may even fall under the normal weight range. Insulin resistance and diabetes are also exhibited in those with PCOS. More than 50 percent of women with PCOS will have diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance(pre-diabetes) before the age of 40.
Acanthosis nigricans may also be present. This is the medical term for darkened, velvety skin on the nape of the neck, armpits, inner thighs, vulva, or under breasts. This skin condition is a sign of insulin resistance.

The risk of heart attack is almost seven times higher in women with PCOS than those without this condition. These women also have a greater risk of high blood pressure, stroke, higher LDL(bad)  cholesterol and low levels of HDL(good) cholesterol, and often develop sleep apnea, when breathing stops for short moments during sleep. PCOS sufferers may also develop anxiety and depression.
Women with PCOS may also be a risk for endometrial cancer. Estrogen is produced, but progesterone is not due to the irregular menstrual cycles and lack of ovulation. Without progesterone the lining of the womb, called endometrium, will become thick and will not shed during the menstrual period. Over time this can cause heavy or irregular bleeding and can lead to a condition where the lining grows too much and may cause cancer.

More than 75 percent of clients with PCOS have some level of hirsutism. This is an over production of the hormone, androgen. Hirsutism can be caused by an increased level of androgens or an oversensitivity of hair follicles to androgens. New studies implicate high circulating levels of insulin in women that contribute to the development of hirsutism. It is speculated that innsulin, at high enough concetration, stimulates the ovarian cells to produce androgens.

While the actual cause of PCOS is unknown, these factors likely play a role: Insulin is the hormone produced in the pancreas that allows cells to use sugar(glucose), it is the body’s primary energy supply. If the body has insulin resistance, the ability to use insulin effectively is impaired, and the pancreas has to secrete more insulin to make glucose available to cells. The excess insulin is thought to boost androgen production by the ovaries.

Heredity may also play a role in PCOS. If a female family member has PCOS, the client might have a greater chance of having it, too.

There is no specific test to definitely diagnose polycystic ovary syndrome. The diagnosis is one of exclusion. A medical history and physical exam will take menstrual cycles, weight, blood pressure, and various symptoms into consideration. A pelvic examination and ultrasound will inspect reproductive organs for signs of masses, growths, or other inconsistent abnormalities. Blood test will also be performed to measure hormones, cholesterol, and tryglyceride level.

Treatment of PCOS is usually centered on specific concerns. The physician might suggest regulating menstrual cycles through prescription medications. As professional electrologists we work with the PCOS clients to assist in removal of the excess hair associated with hirsutism. In addition to prescription medications, clients with PCOS might investigate more holistic or natural forms of care such as a diet rich with complex carbohydrates such as whole grains, brown rice, and beans; increased exercise program and supplements like alpha lipoic acids, B12 and B6, folic acid, vitamin D, magnesium, and cinnamon root.

Treatment of symptoms can often mask the underlying issues which can lead to more serious conditions, like diabetes and endometrial cancer, so a team approach to care includes a primary physician or ob/gyn, endocrinologist, dermatologist, nutritionist, physical trainer and electrologist!

Helping our clients deal with the hirsutism or acne associated with PCOS will alleviate some of the stress that goes along with this condition. Understanding the underlying causes and symptoms may allow you to help a client struggling with undiagnosed PCOS to seek a physician’s care and perhaps discover the answer to a long time health concern.”

by Nadine Toriello, The Society for Clinical & Medical Hair Removal, Inc

More on Electrolysis for PCOS

Seven Keys To Successful Hair Removal

“When it comes to permanent hair removal, getting each step just right is an art form! To achieve quick and permanent results, it is not enough to simply perform the treatments; one must be able to effectively combine all the necessary steps. Here are seven key factors to guarantee successful hair removal treatments to our clients.

1. Match the Right Treatment Option to Each Client

Initial consultation is required before any hair removal treatments can begin. During the first meeting, we obtain information about a client’s medical history, observe the condition of the skin, as well as the density and type of hair to be removed. Based on our observations, we will clearly explain the treatment options and anticipated results that will ensure client satisfaction.

2. Perform Treatments During the Right Phase of Hair Growth.

To achieve permanent hair removal, treatments must be performed during the anagen phase (growing stage) in order to fully destroy the hair. In fact, it is during this phase that the follicles contain the most cells responsible for hair growth, and hair has the most pigmentation. It is very important to plan treatments so as to allow for a maximum number of hairs to be synchronized into the growing stage.

3. Use the Best Equipment Available

The type of equipment your electrologist uses greatly impacts the treatment outcome. The higher the power level of the device, the faster you will achieve permanent results. It is clear that any electrolysis device, even decades old, can lead to permanent hair removal. However, achieving it will be longer and less comfortable for the client. Several options and resources can also improve the results. We use insulated probes that allow for more effective and targeted destruction of the growth cells, leading to quicker permanent results. WE offer all of our clients effective solutions and increased comfort level!

4. Choose the Most Suitable Treatment Parameters.

Every electrolysis expert must determine the most suitable treatment parameters to ensure the best results. Several factors influence the selection process: the individual hair type, the depth of the hair follicle, the particular area being treated, the growth phase and density, intensity level, et cetera. Usually, the greater the professional expertise, the better the evaluation.

5. Adopt Effective Work Methods

During electrolysis treatment a probe is inserted into each follicle. This technique of hair removal requires a high level of precision. The electrologist delicately inserts a probe the size of a hair into the follicle until it reaches the base. This is where the electric current must be emitted for the full and successful destruction of the growth cells to occur. A common myth about electrolysis is that treatments are painful. This is simply not true! Electrolysis treatments are quite comfortable, especially when the technique is correctly performed. A client should never feel anything when the probe is inserted or when the hair is extracted. The client should only feel a slight current lasting a few milliseconds.

6. Your Skin Needs Pampering

Did you know that well hydrated skin can tolerate heat more easily? We perform treatments using a safe but higher degree of heat so more growth cells will be effectively destroyed and the desired results will be achieved more quickly. You should use an exfoliant and moisturizer to treat your skin. Thoroughly moisturizing your skin the next day and on will promote healing and regeneration. All clients must apply protection against UV rays before and after the treatment. This will minimize the risk of hyperpigmentation.

7. Discipline is a Must

In order to achieve permanent results, treatments should be performed during anagen (growing) stage. It is absolutely essential for clients rigorously attend appointments which have been set according to the hair growth phase. If a client pushes back their appointments, they will not see success of the treatments in the shortest amount of time. In conclusion, there are several factors that influence the success of permanent hair removal. Proper training of the electrologist, the right device, well-informed and cooperative clients, and the exercise of sound professional judgment on the part of the electrologist all contribute to safe, comfortable, rapid, and above-all, effective treatments.”

Dermascope magazine, by Karine Beaumont

Electrolysis and Underarm Sweat/Smell Reduction

Great news for people suffering from excessive sweating!!!

Even though electrolysis is done for convenience and cosmetic purposes, it has another beneficial effect.

It reduces sweating and underarm odor!  Of all other methods, ELECTROLYSIS IS THE ONLY PERMANENT SOLUTION.

Excessive sweating, medically known as hyperhidrosis, involves overactive sweat glands. Sweating is necessary to keep the body cool, however it should not interfere with a person’s ability to function and interact. Excessive underarm sweating can disrupt many aspects of a person’s life, from career choices and recreational activities to relationships, emotional well being and self esteem. It affects quality of life. It may cause embarrassment and frustration. This condition may be a hereditary or physiological condition affecting 2-3 % of the population and yet less than 40% seek medical advice for this condition.

During the electrolysis process, not only the hair follicles are destroyed but also sweat glands are cauterized, sealed off. Underarm odor is reduced to a minimum because there is no hair to trap bacteria and degrade the sweat, which is a real plus!

Armpit Bromhidrosis

One unique and bothersome aspect of armpit sweating is that it can often be smelly, a condition called bromhidrosis. Apocrine bromhidrosis is the most common type of bromhidrosis, mostly occurring in the armpit.

We all have sudoriferous glands. Under this title, there are two glands that make sweat:

1. The eccrine gland

2. The apocrine gland

The armpits and groin area contain both eccrine and apocrine sweat glands.

Eccrine glands – Almost all the sweat glands in your body are of a type called eccrine glands and they do not emit odor. They exist alone, meaning, they do not empty into hair follicle and have no connection to the hair follicle. They produce a more dilute, watery sweat when the body has an increase in temperature.

Apocrine glands – are found only in certain areas of the body like the underarms and genital areas. The underarms have the most active apocrine glands. They secrete their sweat into the hair follicle and do not stand alone like the eccrine glands. They are connected to the hair follicle. The odor develops when bacteria breaks down the sweat.

Electrolysis can be very helpful for a condition called apocrine  bromhidrosis or “stinking sweat” or “body odor”.  No matter how clean these individuals are with apocrine bromhidrosis, they smell all the time, which is kind of hard on their social and work life.  Electrolysis is helpful for this kind of sweat because the apocrine glands empty right into the hair follicle to get liquid to the skin surface.  As for the apocrine glands, once the hair follicle is destroyed, their secretions have nowhere to go, so the body just reabsorbs the secretions and the smelly problem goes away.

Botox and Sweating

“Often areas with excessive sweating are treated with topical medications. However, when medical grade antiperspirants are not effective people think that Botox is the next step. Botox reduces or eliminates sweating by blocking the chemical signals from the nerves that stimulate the sweat glands. When effective, sweat is not produced or is greatly reduced in the treated areas. The production of excessive sweat stops only in the areas treated.

In a medical study, 81% achieved a greater than 50% reduction in sweating. Botox is not a cure. The treatment has to be repeated at intervals. In more than half the patients the effectiveness lasted 7 months, however durations of up to 2 years were not uncommon. Sweating returns gradually and usually the patient knows when it is time to return to the doctor.

Botox is not advisable in certain conditions, such as pregnancy or breastfeeding. With some rare diseases like Lou Gehrig’s disease, Myasthenia Gravis, or Lambert-Eaton syndrome Botox must be used with caution. Side effects include bruising in the area and temporary headache.”

If you failed traditional remedies there is a solution…ELECTROLYSIS. It is safe, works on any hair color, skin type and 100% permanent.
Source:  Santa Clarita News / Hometownstation.com

More on skin care

Does Electrolysis Treatment Hurt?

Electrolysis is a comfortable treatment but it is important to keep in mind that pain is a very subjective thing. The goal of electrolysis is to kill a hair follicle so there has to be enough current flowing into your hair follicle to destroy the cells responsible for hair growth. It is impossible to destroy hair growth tissue without at least some sensation because each hair follicle is surrounded by its own network of nerve endings. The sensation you might experience depends on many reasons including where one is having treatment and what method is used. Some parts of the body are more sensitive than others. The upper lip is a little more sensitive because the skin is thin, especially right beneath the nose. In many cases electrolysis on the upper lip stimulates sneezing. Also, as the skin is more sensitive around one’s menstrual cycle, very often we advise our clients to avoid treatment during that time. Our clients have described the sensation as a sting, a mosquito bite, a pinch or gradually building warmth.  Many adjustments can be made which help make the treatment more comfortable. We have a lot of young girls (as early as age 9) that we work on and in those cases we sometimes recommend a numbing cream. In all other cases our clients DO NOT require any type of numbing creams. We utilize the latest Apilus computerized state-of-the-art electrolysis equipment for the most comfortable and effective permanent hair removal procedure available.

*** A note to clients who had electrolysis treatments at other places: You should not feel the insertion of the probe. One of reasons that your previous treatments may have hurt a lot could be that the insertions of the probe into the hair follicle were wrong.